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principles:open-closed_principle

Open-Closed Principle (OCP)

Variants and Alternative Names

Context

Principle Statement

Modules should be open for enhancement but closed for modification.

Description

Rationale

Strategies

Caveats

Beware that wrong application of OCP may lead to the anti-pattern onion.

See also section contrary principles.

Origin

Bertrand Meyer: Object-Oriented Software Construction, p. 57pp.

Evidence

Relations to Other Principles

Generalizations

  • Encapsulate the Concept that Varies (ECV): The OCP demands encapsulating abstract concepts in base classes (or interfaces) in order to be able to enhance the module by subclassing which is possible without changing the previously written code. In this case several variations of a concept may exist in the code at the same time. There is always the abstract base class plus one or usually more concrete subclasses. So the OCP is about encapsulating abstract concepts that vary “in space”.

Specializations

Contrary Principles

  • more Is More Complex (MIMC): The OCP demands introducing abstract base classes or interfaces.
  • Keep It Simple Stupid (KISS): The OCP demands introducing abstract base classes or interfaces. This increases complexity.
  • Model Principle (MP): OCP sometimes results in the introduction of artificial classes that do not correspond to a real-world concept.

Complementary Principles

  • Dependency Inversion Principle (DIP): OCP results in the introduction of abstract classes or interfaces and descendant concrete classes. DIP now tells that other classes should only depend on the abstractions.
  • Liskov Substitution Principle (LSP): OCP may results in the introduction of abstract classes or interfaces. Here it is important to get the abstraction right. Otherwise LSP may be violated.

Principle Collections

Examples

Description Status

Further Reading

Discussion

Discuss this wiki article and the principle on the corresponding talk page.

principles/open-closed_principle.txt · Last modified: 2013-06-22 20:43 by christian